According to IS 875:1987 types of loads acting on a structure are

  • Dead loads : Dead loads are permanent or stationary loads which are transferred to structure throughout the life span. Dead load is primarily due to self-weight of structural members, permanent partition walls, fixed permanent equipment and weight of different materials. The calculation of dead loads of each structure are calculated by the volume of each section and multiplied with the unit weight.
  • Imposed loads: Live loads are either movable or moving loads without any acceleration or impact. These loads are assumed to be produced by the intended use or occupancy of the building including weights of movable partitions or furniture etc. Live loads keeps on changing from time to time.
  •  Wind loads : Wind load is primarily horizontal load caused by the movement of air relative to earth. Wind load is required to be considered in structural design especially when the height of the building exceeds two times the dimensions transverse to the exposed wind surface.
  •  Snow loads : Snow loads constitute to the vertical loads in the building. But these types of loads are considered only in the snow fall places.
  •  Earthquake loads : Earthquake forces constitute to both vertical and horizontal forces on the building. The total vibration caused by earthquake may be resolved into three mutually perpendicular directions, usually taken as vertical and two horizontal directions.
  •  Special loads : As per the clause 19.6 of IS 456 – 2000, in addition to above load discussed, account shall be taken of the following forces and effects if they are liable to affect materially the safety and serviceability of the structure: (a) Foundation movement (See IS 1904) (b) Elastic axial shortening (c) Soil and fluid pressure (See IS 875, Part 5) (d) Vibration (e) Fatigue (f) Impact (See IS 875, Part 5) (g) Erection loads (See IS 875, Part 2)

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